Although the term Plastic Surgery derives from the Greek word “plastikos” that means “changing the form”, current practices focus on gaining the lost function in addition to the form changes.
Therefore, name of the department also includes the term “reconstruction” that means the action of reconstructing
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery usually deals with two main areas:
1. Reconstructive Surgery: It covers all surgical procedures and treatment modalities that aim to correct tissue losses, function losses and deformities, which develop secondary to trauma and diseases, using microsurgery techniques
This covers a baby with a congenital anomaly such as cleft lip and/or palate or a young adult presenting with fractured facial bones secondary to the traffic accident or event an elderly patient who is diagnosed with skin cancer.
Reconstructive surgery deals with tissue losses or abnormal tissues that develop due to certain factors, such as trauma, disease, cancer, infection, acquired or congenital anomalies and burn, and are foreign to the body.
Although the primary goal is to correct the loss of function caused by above mentioned conditions, it is also used to correct the deformities that are formed by certain factors, which lead to aesthetic dissatisfaction.
Reconstructive surgery deals with patients in two main categories:
The first one covers congenital anomalies, deficits, excesses and dysfunctions.
The examples include syndactyly which implies fusion of two or more digits, congenital loss of one or more digits in hands, vascular anomalies that are also called birth marks, disorders of skeletal structure in skull and/or face and cleft lip and palate (colloquially called rabbit lip and wolf mouth).
The problem is acquired in nature in patients who fall into the second category (Acquired Anomaly). Burn wounds, skin tumors, trauma-related lacerations and fractured bones of face and hand.
Developmental deformities (prominent ear or nasal deformity secondary to fall) and aging-related changes are examples of the acquired problems.
2. Aesthetic Surgery: This area covers surgical practices that aim to change appearance of body parts, which the person does not like in his/her body. These procedures are carried out on healthy body tissues and they are not related with elimination of a disease. Although they mostly serve the above mentioned goal, aesthetic surgeries may also be performed to eliminate a medical problem. An example of this approach is the breast reduction surgery for a person who complains of severe back pain, numbness in hands and inframammarian fungal infections, which are secondary to oversized breasts.
Following surgical and non-surgical procedures are very commonly carried out within scope of aesthetic surgery:
Nasoplasty (Rhinoplasty): Nasal aesthetic
Otoplasty: Ear aesthetics. It covers interventions that reduce size of ears and eliminate the appearance of prominent ear.
Blepharoplasty: Eye Lid Aesthetics. These procedures aim to correct wrinkles, sagging and swelling that develop in upper and lower eyelids secondary to aging.
Face lift (Rhytidectomy): Face lift and facial rejuvenation surgery
Orthognathic Surgery: This surgery moves upper and lower jaws forward or backward and changes their horizontal positions. The patients who will undergo this surgery should be treated at Department of Orthodontics – a principal department of Dentistry – regarding misalignments of teeth, before the surgery is performed.
Abdominoplasty: Tummy Tuck
Liposuction: Reomval of fat to eliminate abnormal fat distribution (accumulation) in the body.
Augmentation mammaplasty: Breast augmentation surgery.
Reduction mammaplasty: Breast reduction surgery
Mastopexy: Elimination of sagging breasts and breast lift
Dermabrasion, chemical peeling methods: Formation of new and healthy skin is ensured by peeling the upper layers of the facial skin with a mechanical or chemical process in order to correct facial wrinkles, skin spots and skin irregularities secondary to acne.